The Dwadasha Stotra by Madhwacharya (1191-1278) is one of the main compositions that led to the growth and development of the Haridasa Sahitya in
Though the Haridasa movement began with Narahari Theertha, one of the disciples of Madhwacharya, writing suladis of which only three are available, it took off with the advent of Sripadaraja of Mulabagal (1404-1502).
The Dwadesha Stotra and several others works of Madhwacharya inspired Sripadaraja to compose Devaranamas and other forms of poetry. Madha seers after him and the Dasa Koota founded by his disciple, Vyasa Raja or Vyasa Theertha (1447-1539) not only propagated the Dwaitha ideals put forward by Madhwacharya, but they continued to be inspired by the Dwadesha Stotra.
The Dwadesha Stotra is a Sanskrit composition comprising of twelve stotras in praise of Vishnu or Hari. It was composed when the idol of Sri Krishna was being consecrated by Madhwacharya, also known as Ananda Theertha or Poorna Prajna at Udupi.
Another popular legend associated with the stotra says Madhwacharya had already composed seven slokas when he saw a ship in distress near Malpe. He saved the ship from going under and when he received the mound of Gopichandana in which the idol of
Krishna was present, he completed the stotra by composing
its other five slokas.
Yet another story says, Madhwacharya himself began composing and reciting it when some of his disciples poisoned an ox which used to regularly carry his works on its back. The Acharya had pointed at the ox when these disciples had asked who would write the commentaries for his innumerable works. Angered by this gesture, they had poisoned the ox. When Acharya came to know of this, he went to the place where the ox lay dead and recited the Dwadesha Stotra. The ox got back its life and in its next birth, became Jaya Theertha or Teekacharya.
Since, then, this stotra is recited at the time of offering of Naivedya to Vishnu.
Of the twelve slokas, the third summaries Madhwacharya’s concept of dualism or Dwaitha philosophy.
The Dwaadasha Stotra has been interpreted and reinterpreted several times by almost ever Madhwa seer, Haridasa and scholar. They have formed the basis for the Haridasas to launch their vehicle of music and devotion through literature.
The Sanskrit words are full of meaning and each of them go to back completely the Tatwavada of our Acharya.
Even today, this stotra is recited every day at Udupi during the offering of Naivedya to Lord Krishna.
There are several commentaries on this stotra and some of them are by Janardhana Bhatta, Gangodamishra, Panghri Srinivasacharya, Gûdhakartrka, Chalari Narasimhacharya, Channapattana Thimmannacharya, Umarji Tirumalacharya, C M Padmanabhacharya, Punyashravana Bhikshu and Vishvapati Theertha.
It is Vishvapathi Theertha of Pejawar Matha who says Madhwacharya had already composed five slokas and he composed the sixth when he saw the ship struggling to stay aloft in the choppy seas off Malpe.
The lyrics of the stotra in English are as follows:
vande vandyam sadanandam vasudevam nirajanamh |
indirapatimadyadi varadesha varapradamh || 1
namami nikhiladhisha kiritaghrishhtapithavath |
hrittamah shamanearkabham shripateh padapankajamh || 2
jambunadambaradharam nitambam chintyamishituh |
svarnamaJnjirasamvitam arudham jagadambaya || 3
udaram chintyam ishasya tanutveapi akhilambharam |
valitrayankitam nityam arudham shriyaikaya || 4
smaraniyamuro vishhnoh indiravasamuttamaih |
anantam antavadiva bhujayorantarangatamh || 5
shankhachakragadapadmadharashchintya harerbhujah |
pinavritta jagadraxa kevalodyoginoanishamh || 6
santatam chintayetkantham bhasvatkaustubhabhasakamh |
vaikunthasyakhila veda udgiryanteanisham yatah || 7
smareta yamininatha sahasramitakantimath |
bhavatapapanodidhyam shripateh mukhapankajamh || 8
purnananyasukhodbhasim andasmitamadhishituh |
govindasya sada chintyam nityanandapadapradamh || 9
smarami bhavasantapa hanidamritasagaramh |
purnanandasya ramasya sanuragavalokanamh || 10
dhyayedajasramishasya padmajadipratixitamh |
bhrubhangam parameshhthhyadi padadayi vimuktidamh || 11
santatam chintayeanantam antakale visheshhatah |